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Spiritual Development: Outcomes and Indicators
by Frances Vaughan, Ph.D.
Aug. 1998

Copyright © 1998 by Frances Vaughan. All rights reserved.
Used by the Council on Spiritual Practices with permission.

  • Stages of spiritual development
    • Traditional
      • Christian - Fowler's six stages of faith
      • Buddhist - Ten ox-herding pictures
      • Hindu - seven chakras
      • Sufi - seven levels of self
    • Psychological
      • Egocentric
      • Sociocentric
      • Worldcentric
      • Transpersonal
  • Markers
    • Presence
      • Self-awareness
      • awareness of others
      • awareness of relationships
      • authenticity
    • Emotional transformation
      • Compassion replacing judgment
      • Forgiveness replacing anger
      • Expanding circle of empathic identification
    • Motivation
        inner peace: from fear to love
      • cultivation of wisdom: from ignorance to understanding
      • liberation: from bondage to freedom
    • Process
      • belief-faith-experience-identification
      • effort and surrender
      • attention and intention
        • setting a sacred intention
        • self-improvement and self-acceptance
      • from mystical experience to becoming a mystic
    • Purpose
      • relieve suffering
      • awaken new perceptions of reality
      • self-realization and self-transcendence
      • enlightenment
      • connecting life of mind and spirit with action in the world
  • Evolution
    • The spiritual path - aspiring to enlightenment
  • Involution
    • Experience-gnosis-manifestation-transmission

For further reading on topics outlined above see:

Vaughan, F. Shadows of the Sacred: Seeing Through Spiritual Illusions. Wheaton, Ill.: Quest Books, 1995. Also Author's Guild Back-in-Print series,

Vaughan, F. The Inward Arc: Healing in Psychotherapy and Spirituality. 2nd edition. Nevada City, CA.: Blue Dolphin, 1995 Also Author's Guild Back-in-Print series,

Spiritual Intelligence
Frances Vaughan - 1998

SPIRITUALITY: Subjective experience of the sacred
RELIGION: Creed, community, code of ethics
INTELLIGENCE: Transrational, transpersonal
Includes rational and intuitive modes of knowing
Includes personal and collective sources of wisdom

SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE transcends and includes
sense perception
feeling and emotion
discursive reason

wisdom and compassion
understanding and inner peace
love and freedom
depth and breadth of vision

SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE may be expressed as
the common work
teaching and learning
healing and forgiveness
research, education and service

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Inside Spiritual Development Section
Code of Ethics

About CSP
Purpose and Results

Religious Leaders
needed to help with research
in Baltimore or New York

The Mystical Core
of Organized Religion