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Religion and Psychoactive Sacraments:
An Entheogen Chrestomathy

Thomas B. Roberts, Ph.D. and Paula Jo Hruby, Ed.D.
Author Index | Title Index

Cannabis and Culture

Rubin, Vera. (editor). (1975).
The Hague: Mouton Publishers.

ISBN:90-279-7669-4 (Mouton)
0-202-01152-6 (Aldine)

Description: Hardcover, xiv + 598 pages.

General Editor's Prefacev
by Vera Rubin
Part One: Ethnobotany and Diffusion
Typification of Cannabis sativa L.
by William T. Stearn
Cannabis: An Example of Taxonomic Neglect
by Richard Evans Schultes, William M. Klein, Timothy Plowman,
and Tom E. Lockwood
Early Diffusion and Folk Uses of Hemp
by Sula Benet
The Origin and Uses of Cannabis in Eastern Asia: Their Linguistic-Cultural Implications
by Hui-Lin Li
Ethnobotanical Aspects of Cannabis in Southeast Asia
by Marie Alexandrine Martin
Cannabis Smoking in 13th-14th Century Ethiopia: Chemical Evidence
by Nikolaas J. van der Merwe
Dagga: The History and Ethnographic Setting of Cannabis sativa in Southern Africa
by Brian M. du Toit
Part Two: Sociocultural Aspects of the Traditional Complex
The Social Nexus of Ganja in Jamaica
by Lambros Comitas
The Ritual Use of Cannabis in Mexico
by Roberto Williams-Garcia
Cannabis and Cultural Groups in a Columbian Municipio
by William L. Partridge
Patterns of Marihuana Use in Brazil
by Harry William Hutchinson
Economic Significance of Cannabis sativa in the Moroccan Rif
by Roger Joseph
Traditional Patterns of Hashish Use in Egypt
by Ahmad M. Khalifa
The Traditional Role and Symbolism of Hashish among Moroccan Jews in Israel and the Effect of Acculturation
by Phyllis Palgi
The Social and Cultural Context of Cannabis Use in Rwanda
by Helen Codere
Réunion: Cannabis in a Pluricultural and Polyethnic Society
by Jean Benoist
Social Aspects of the Use of Cannabis in India
by Khwaja A. Hasan
Cannabis in Nepal: An Overview
by James Fisher
The Ganja Vision" in Jamaica
by Vera Rubin
Part Three: Medical, Pharmacological and Ethnometabolic Studies
Cannabis sativa L. (Marihuana): VI Variations in Marihuana Preparations and Usage - Chemical and Pharmacological Consequences
by Alvin B. Segelman, R. Duane Sofia, and Florence H. Segelman
Social and Medical Aspects of the Use of Cannabis in Brazil
by Alvaro Rubim de Pinho
Sociocultural and Epidemiological Aspects of Hashish Use in Greece
by C. Stefanis, C. Ballas, and D. Madianou
Marihuana and Genetic Studies in Colombia: The Problem in the City and in the Country
by B. R. Elejalde
Cannabis Usage in Pakistan: A Pilot Study of Long Term Effects on Social Status and Physical Health
by Munir A. Khan, Assad Abbas, and Knud Jensen
The Significance of Marihuana in a Small Agricultural Community in Jamaica
by Joseph Schaeffer
Chronic Cannabis Use in Costa Rica: A Description of Research Objectives
by W. E. Carter and W. J. Coggins
Part Four: Traditional Usage of Other Psychoactive Plants
Man, Culture and Hallucinogens: An Overview
by Marlene Dobkin de Rios
Peyote and Huichol Worldview: The Structure of a Mystic Vision
by Barbara G. Myerhoff
Magico-Religious Use of Tobacco among South American Indians
by Johannes Wilbert
Coca Chewing: A New Perspective
by Roderick E. Burchard
Cannabis or Alcohol: The Jamaican Experience
by Michael H. Beaubrun
Part Five: The Modern Complex in North America
Cannabis Use in Canada
by Melvyn Green and Ralph D. Miller
Memories, Reflections and Myths: The American Marihuana Commission
by Louis Bozetti and Jack Blaine
Sociocultural Factors in Marihuana Use in the United States
by William H. McGlothlin
Intersections of Anthropology and Law in the Cannabis Area
by John Kaplan
Cannabis Conference Participant-Observers559
Biographical Notes563
Index of Names571
Index of Subjects579

Excerpt(s): The papers in this volume were originally presented at a conference on Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Cannabis, convened in Chicago, August 1973, during the IXth International Congress of the International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences. It brings together much of the contemporary social science data and thought on many world areas where cannabis has been traditionally used as a multipurpose plant, about which there has previously been little or no scientific reporting. The volume also introduces new botanical classifications and presents data on clinical studies of cannabis users.

The Conference was attended by some sixty scientists, in the fields of anthropology, botany, genetics, pharmacology, psychiatry and sociology, involved in various aspects of research on the complexities of cannabis in relation to man and culture. ...

Hui-Lin Li, one of the contributors, maintains that the first documented medical uses of cannabis in China, in an herbal text of the second century A.D., chronicles oral traditions passed down from prehistoric times, based on archeological, botanical and linguistic evidence. The antiquity of cannabis as a cultivated species in China, Hui-Lin Li observes, is attested to by its multitudinal uses in ancient times and its important role in the practice of Shamanism. He posits that there was widespread ritual use by the Neolithic peoples of northeast Asia, and that the nomadic tribes carried the plant and its ritual uses to western Asia and to India, where it proliferated. As reported in the article by Khwaja Hasan, medical and sacred use in India is also known to have a long tradition, predating written records.

Sacred use of cannabis in Assyria, Babylon and Palestine has been recorded, and Herodotus described Scythian funeral rites involving purification with vapor from cannabis seeds. This was corroborated by the Soviet archaeologist, S. I. Rudenko. In her article in this volume, Sula Benet traces the derivation of the generic term Cannabis from the Hebrew term kanebosm that appears both in the Hebrew and Aramaic translations of the Old Testament. Hemp was used for sacred and secular purposes, for the ropes of Solomon's temple and the robes of the priests. Benet surmises that both Scythians and Semites diffused ritual use of the plant to southern and eastern Europe on their westward migrations from Asia Minor. According to the Old Testament, cannabis was among the merchandise carried by caravans on the trade routes of the ancient world. The Old Testament, like the medical and sacred writings of other ancient civilizations, is based on venerable oral traditions. (Introduction, Vera Rubin, pages 1-3)

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